HLT 540 Grand Canyon Entire Course

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HLT 540 Grand Canyon Entire Course

HLT540

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 1 Discussion 1

Why do you think many healthcare practitioners are often unwilling to change practice patterns, based on research findings? Some practitioners criticize evidence-based practice as “cookbook care.” Considering these perceptions, how would you utilize your education and experiences in planning the implementation of a major change?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 1 Discussion 2

Consider the question: “Why do physicians and nurses kill more people than airline pilots?” Apply your critical thinking skills to this argument and critique the statement. First, do you think it’s true? If it is, what do you think about their rationale? How would you address it if the question were posed to you in a forum?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 2 Discussion 1

What kinds of extraneous variables (not cited in the studies) do you think could have affected the relationships between the independent variables and the dependent variables in both the Messina et al. and Coyne et al. studies?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 2 Discussion 2

How effectively do you think the Coyne et al. study and the Messina et al. study both used their review of literature to help the reader understand why the research question was asked? How could they have done it more effectively?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 3 Discussion 1

Given that there is a documented advantage to the use of an experimental and control group design, discuss why other designs are frequently used, and the situations that may prompt the use of one.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 3 Discussion 2

Discuss your understanding of the concept of internal validity in a research study, and the impacts of several errors or biases that can reduce the study’s validity.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 4 Discussion 1

Why do you think so many people have problems with using, interpreting, or applying statistics in making business decisions?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 4 Discussion 2

As you have learned to evaluate different research studies, what elements seem the most important to you for evaluation of the research’s quality? Why?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 5 Discussion 1

Discuss the concept of the normal distribution, why it is important, and what you think it means.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 5 Discussion 2

When students talk about “grading on the curve,” how does that apply to the normal distribution?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 6 Discussion 1

Discuss the differences between the concepts of correlation and causality, and why it is critically important to make sure that the differences are understood?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 6 Discussion 2

What are the indicators for using a t-test? Create a research scenario in which it would be correct to use a t-test, including the research question, sample size, and dependent and independent variables.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 7 Discussion 1

What are the indicators for using an ANOVA? Create a research scenario in which it would be correct to use an ANOVA, including the research question, sample size, and dependent and independent variables.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 7 Discussion 2

What are the indicators for using a regression analysis? Create a research scenario in which it would be correct to use a regression analysis, including the research question, sample size, and dependent and independent variables?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 8 Discussion 1

Re-visit the roadmap that you began at the start of your program of study. Complete information regarding this course. In the discussion, reflect on how this course meets your career goals. What have you gleaned from the course that will help you in your career path? Respond to at least two other classmates.

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 8 Discussion 2

Discuss your thoughts about the ethics of using informed consent vs. blinding the subjects to the expected outcomes of the intervention. Should they be told? How much should they be told? How would the placebo effect be impacted if subjects are told which intervention is being applied to them?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 2 Assignment

Evidence-Based Research Interview

Details:

Identify, analyze, and discuss the components that comprise a valid evidence-based research study.

Based on the information compiled above, interview a health care leader about his/her experiences related to using evidence-based research to drive changes in practices in his/her facility.

Write a report (1,000-1,250 words) of your findings. Include the following in your report:

1) The changes that the health care leader has been involved in implementing.

2) How strong did the leader feel the research on the topic was? Why?

3) Have they ever rejected research findings? Why or why not?

4) Include any concerns they have had or resistance they have experienced when implementing changes based on research.

5) Analyze your findings as they apply to the components of evidence-based research.

Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 3 Assignment 1

Coyne and Messina Articles, Part 1 Analysis

Details:

1) In a paper (1,000-1,250 words), compare and contrast the major elements of the reports by Coyne et al. and Messina et al., listed in the Module 2 Readings.

2) Complete the “Coyne and Messina Articles Analysis.” Study the information in the right-side column related to the Coyne, et al. study, which identifies the required elements as found in the reading. Complete the information for the Messina et al. article by identifying the required elements from the article.

3) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

Coyne and Messina Articles Analysis

As an example guideline, review the study components in the left-side column of the table below. Read the study by Messina et al., and build the data in the right-side column with the key components in that study.

Research Question:

Coyne: Do size and ownership type make a difference in the efficiency and cost results of hospitals in Washington state? (Highlight p.164, second column, starting 15 lines from bottom to seven lines from bottom.)

Messina:

How did the research question emerge from the review of literature in the article?

Coyne:

Built on an earlier study by Coyne on performance differences between multi-facility systems and independent hospitals using two cost measures. Cited studies that used a range of variables to measure differences in hospital performance, and noted that prior findings have been inconclusive in regard to hospital size, although economies of scale were found.

Messina:

Independent Variables

Type:

Coyne:

Hospital size and hospital ownership structure.

Categorical

Messina:

Dependent Variables

Type:

Coyne:

Efficiency measures – continuous variables.

Cost measures – continuous variables.

Messina:

Design Elements

  1. Quantitative vs. Qualitative
  2. Sample Size
  3. Method of sample selection
  4. Experimental vs. control group?
  5. Reliable and valid data instruments?

Coyne:

Quantitative 96

Picked all hospitals in state, except investor owned hospitals.

No

Used data that are commonly used to measure hospital efficiency and performance with high degrees of accuracy (reliable), and data that are historically used and make sense to other hospital users (valid).

Messina:

Describe analysis.

What statistics were used?

Coyne:

Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

Messina:

Did the researchers’ conclusions make sense, did they answer the research question, and did they appear to flow from the review of the literature?

Did they explore control of extraneous variables?

Coyne:

They concluded that size and ownership type make a difference in reported levels of efficiency. Not for profits seem to achieve higher performance levels, and medium and large not for profits operate more efficiently than industry average. The same results were found for cost levels, in that size and ownership type do make a difference, with medium sized hospitals reporting lower costs than large or small hospitals.

Yes, when they called for national studies that controlled for case mix, scope of services, and payer mix, all of which could have affected the results in this study in an unmeasured way.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 3 Assignment 2

Assessing a Research Study

Details:

1) Choose a research study article of interest to you.

2) Refer to the study you choose and complete “Assessing a Research Study.”

3) Identify an article that directly references your chosen study and compare it to your findings. Does this article refute or confirm the study’s findings?

4) Write a paper (750-1,000 words) that analyzes and summarizes your findings.

5) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

6) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

Assessing a Research Study

Review the study components in the left-side column of the form below. Refer to the study you chose, and complete the data in the right-side column with the key components in that study.

Research Question:

How did the research question emerge from the review of literature in the article?

Independent Variables

Type:

Dependent Variables

Type:

Identify and Define the Study Design Elements:

  1. Quantitative vs. Qualitative:
  2. Sample Size
  3. Method of sample selection: Explanation.
  4. Identify and define the experimental and control groups?
  5. Reliable and valid data instruments? Explain.

Describe analysis.

What statistics were used?

Did the researchers’ conclusions make sense, did they answer the research question, and did they appear to flow from the review of the literature?

Did they explore control of extraneous variables?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 4 Assignment

Coyne and Messina Articles Part 2 Statistical Assessment

Details:

1) Write a paper of 1,000-1,250 words regarding the statistical significance of outcomes as presented in Messina’s, et al. article “The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Inpatient Admissions Across Teaching and Nonteaching Hospitals.”

2) Assess the appropriateness of the statistics used by referring to the chart presented in the Module 4 lecture and the resource “Statistical Assessment.”

3) Discuss the value of statistical significance vs. pragmatic usefulness.

4) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

5) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 5 Assignment 1

Broyles Textbook Practice Exercise

Details:

Complete “Practice Exercise 1” (page 157) and “Practice Exercise 11” (page 180) in the textbook. For the data set listed, use Excel to extract the mean and standard deviation for the sample of lengths of stay for cardiac patients. Use the following Excel steps:

1) Enter the data set into Excel.

2) Click on the Data tab at the top.

3) Highlight your data set with your mouse.

4) Click on the Data Analysis tab at the top right.

5) Click on Descriptive Statistics in the analysis tool list.

6) Find the mean and standard deviation of the data sets.

7) Send the results to instructor via e-mail, along with your analysis of the description of the data set.

APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 5 Assignment 2

Coyne and Messina Articles Part 3 Spearman Coefficient Review

Details:

1) Write a paper (750-1,000 words) regarding the use of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient by Messina, et al. in “The Relationship between Patient Satisfaction and Inpatient Admissions Across Teaching and Nonteaching Hospitals,” listed in the module readings.

2) Comment on what variables were used; whether it answered the research question; and whether the Spearman rank correlation coefficient is appropriately used, given the requirements of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

3) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 6 Assignment 1

Yeung Analysis

Details:

1) Refer to “The Use of Electro-Acupuncture in Conjunction with Exercise for the Treatment of Chronic Low-Back Pain” by Yeung, Leung, and Chow.

2) Complete “Yeung Analysis Worksheet.”

3) Examine the question the researchers were trying to answer and write an essay (500-750 words) that explains why you feel the t-test was chosen. Choose one of the other tools studied so far in this course and explain why it would not provide relevant findings.

4) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

5) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

Yeung Analysis Worksheet

What was the research question?

What were the independent variables?

What was the dependent variable?

What was the sample size and how was it chosen?

What was the experimental design and use of control group?

Were the instruments of measurement shown to be reliable and valid?

What data types were included?

Describe the statistics used, what they were used for, and the results.

What were the researchers’ conclusions? How did they answer the research question(s)?

How was error controlled?

Did you see any concerns with the research study? If so, what?

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 6 Assignment 2

Correlation between Two Variables

Details:

Use Excel to do a correlation between the following variables:

1) X – 2,5,5,6,6,7,8,9

2) Y – 1,2,2,3,4,4,5,5

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 6 Assignment 3

T-Test for Two Sample

Details:

A drug company is measuring levels of oxygenation in patients after receiving a test medication. As the researcher, you are interested in whether Group I, which received the medication, has the same oxygenation levels as Group II, which did not.

1) Group 1: 2,3,3,4,4,7,8,9

2) Group 2: 1,2,2,3,4,4,5,5,6,8

Use Excel to run a t-test for two samples, assuming equal variances, with an alpha value of 0.05. Run the t-test and note:

1) Are you doing a one-tailed test or a two-tailed test (Excel will give you both)?

2) What is the probability that Group I is different from Group 2, using the p value? Is it significant against the benchmark of p < .05?

APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 7 Assignment 1

Broyles Textbook Exercise 1

Details:

1) Use Excel to complete “Exercise 1” on page 247 (Regression Analysis) in the textbook.

2) Answer the questions at the end of the exercise.

3) APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 7 Assignment 2

Broyles Textbook Exercise 7

Details:

1) Use Excel to complete “Exercise 7” on page 208 (ANOVA) in the textbook.

2) Answer the questions at the end of the exercise.

3) APA format is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

 

HLT 540 Grand Canyon Week 7 Assignment 3

Roddy and Ganz Assessments

Details:

1) Use “Roddy and Ganz Worksheets” to complete an assessment of the research studies: “Evidence-Based Clinical Guidelines: A New System to Better Determine True Strength of Recommendation” by Roddy et al., and “ICU Nurses’ Oral-Care Practices and the Current Best Evidence” by Ganz et al.

2) In a paper (1,000-1,250 words), analyze and support whether you believe that the changes recommended are statistically valid and sound enough to make practice changes in a hospital.

3) Prepare this assignment according to the APA guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

4) This assignment uses a grading rubric. Instructors will be using the rubric to grade the assignment; therefore, students should review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the assignment criteria and expectations for successful completion of the assignment.

Roddy Analysis Worksheet

Using the worksheet below, complete an assessment of the following article.

Roddy, E., Zhang, W., Doherty, M., Arden, N. K., Barlow, J., Birrell, F., et al. (2006). Evidence-based clinical guidelines: A new system to better determine true strength of recommendation. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 12(3), 347-352. Retrieved from.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=20870724&site=ehost-live&scope=site”>http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=20870724&site=ehost-live&scope=site

What was the research question?

What were the independent variables?

What was the dependent variable?

What was the sample size and how was it chosen?

What was the experimental design and use of control group?

Were the instruments of measurement shown to be reliable and valid?

What data types were included?

Describe the statistics used, what they were used for, and the results.

What were the researchers’ conclusions? How did they answer the research question(s)?

How was error controlled?

Did you see any concerns with the research study? If so, what?

Ganz Analysis Worksheet

Using the worksheet below, complete an assessment of the following article.

Ganz, F., Fink, N., Raanan, O., Asher, M., Bruttin, M., Nun, M., et al. (2009). ICU nurses’ oral-care practices and the current best evidence. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 41(2), 132-138. Retrieved from.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/pqdweb?did=1780947491&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=48377&RQT=309&VName=PQD”>http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com.library.gcu.edu:2048/pqdweb?did=1780947491&sid=1&Fmt=3&clientId=48377&RQT=309&VName=PQD

What was the research question?

What were the independent variables?

What was the dependent variable?

What was the sample size and how was it chosen?

What was the experimental design and use of control group?

Were the instruments of measurement shown to be reliable and valid?

What data types were included?

Describe the statistics used, what they were used for, and the results.

What were the researchers’ conclusions? How did they answer the research question(s)?

How was error controlled?

Did you see any concerns with the research study? If so, what?

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